Business Planning Archives - Lumec

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July 29, 2020

We are regularly approached by start-ups requesting to undertake feasibility studies. This is largely due to the fact that, where start-ups don’t have a proven track record or offtake agreements, funders require evidence of economic and financial viability. In our last blog post, we focussed on understanding what it means to develop a ‘business case’. In this blog, we unpack the different types of economic market research that can be completed to determine economic and financial viability. We have recently developed a package of market research offerings which can be found here – this forms the basis of our discussion below. Essentially, we distinguish economic market research into two types, namely, (a) market demand assessments and (b) feasibility studies, with market demand assessments being one component of a full feasibility study.

What is a market demand assessment?

Market demand assessments are done to provide a detailed understanding of the economic viability of a business idea (i.e. product or service offering). This can be done more simply via a desktop assessment or in slightly more detail through including primary research such as surveys. In a generic market demand assessment, we usually start by undertaking a lean canvas analysis to further define the business model and provide a solid starting point for the market research. Thereafter, the research will define the target market, undertake a demographic and socio-economic profile of the target market, assess current market and industry trends, and do a competitor analysis. Once the market is well understood, these key findings are used to develop a demand model which will quantify current and projected demand for your business idea, such as the potential number of customers or units that could be absorbed by the market. 

For example, if you want to start a local manufacturing business, we’d first need to understand what it is exactly that you want to do, then understand the market which you could potentially penetrate, and then quantify the market (i.e. population as an indication of potential customers, income as an indication of spending power, etc). Once this has been done, we’d look at the specific sector and industry in which you intend to operate and assess trends and patterns which will have an impact on your businesses success, and then analyse your competitors, their products, and pricing. Using all this information, we’d then develop a model which utilises assumptions based on the market and industry analysis, and provides projections to say, for example, “in 2022, should you be able to penetrate 5% of the market, there is potential for you to sell 100,000 units per annum”.

What is a feasibility study?

A feasibility study builds on the steps undertaken in a market demand assessment but also includes an institutional and operational assessment and analysis of financial viability. The institutional and operational assessment essentially represents the structure of the entity (legal, shareholding, etc), the HR structure, and business operations, while the financial analysis ties together projected revenue streams with capital and operational expenditure to show profit & loss and break-even. The results of the feasibility study can then be pulled through into a business plan, which will provide funders with strong evidence that the proposed project or business has the potential to succeed. Including off-take agreements can help to build an even stronger case. 

What do funders want to see?

A market demand assessment is a great starting point in understanding market potential. However, most funders want to see how this translates into financial viability. We have been told by numerous development financing institutions that the most critical element of any feasibility study is ensuring financial projections are informed by and developed off anticipated demand calculations. So in the example above, showing that you have the potential to sell 100,000 units per annum might not be enough. However, if you can show that this can generate R25,000,000 in sales per annum at a competitive market rate of R25 per unit, and after developing your financial model you can show a reasonable profit margin, you’re likely to catch the attention of funders. 

So, why do market research?

In summary, undertaking market research is an important tool in gaining a better understanding of a potential business product, service or even a concept or idea. In the case where you can prove viability through offtake agreements and a solid business plan, you most likely can raise funding without doing any market research. However, in many cases, offtake agreements are difficult or impossible to secure (i.e. when your product is service is targeting customers directly), so market research is important in building a case for funders. A market demand assessment will provide you with solid evidence as to whether or not your business venture has the potential to succeed, giving you an indication of potential customers or sales. However, taking this further into a feasibility study by including the institutional and operational structure and detailed financial analysis (tied to the market demand assessment) can go a long way in securing funding. 


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May 25, 2020

Over the past year and a half, we have been regularly engaging with start-up businesses and entrepreneurs from a wide variety of sectors, as well as organisations providing both funding and development support to start-ups. A common challenge faced by most start-ups is access to funding. This is often due to the fact that they do not have a proven track record and are unable to demonstrate that their business idea is viable, and are therefore viewed as ‘high risk’ by funders. This essentially creates a mismatch between funders and start-ups at the critical ‘seed stage’ of development. Understanding this, we specifically engaged with funders to gain some insight into how start-ups can access the funding that is available. What it essentially comes down to is both (a) having a solid business case and (b) being able to prove economic and financial viability. 

In this blog we’ll address part a, essentially, understanding the term ‘business case’ and suggestions on how you can build a solid business case. In our next blog post, we’ll focus on part b, which unpacks how to determine market viability and how to leverage this to guide financial projections. 

So what is a business case?

Simply put, do you have evidence to back up your idea? We all have ideas, but not all of us know how to step back and objectively assess our ideas to determine whether these will survive in a very competitive start-up environment. A business case is the first step at truly understanding whether an idea is worth pursuing or not, which is critical because it is going to require a lot of time and effort to take your idea through to implementation. A business case can be as simple as a one-page document that presents a clear and concise overview of your project idea and backs this up with some factual data and information. This will provide you with some evidence to start to test initial interest for your project idea. 

The difference between a business case, feasibility study and business plan

A business case must not be confused with a feasibility study or a business plan. A feasibility study is usually undertaken after there is enough evidence, through some initial research, to support an idea or project and you can show you have a business case. It digs deeper to understand and assess the market and industry, analyse competitors, and measure potential market demand (i.e. economic viability), which then assists to determine financial viability. A business plan then draws from these critical findings and includes more administrative, institutional and operational requirements, and more accurate financial calculations. We are often contracted to just undertake the economic viability component of a feasibility study (i.e to determine potential market demand) for clients who have an idea and want to both be able to test their business case and have some additional evidence to support launching into a full-scale, and often multi-disciplinary feasibility study. Such specialist studies can be very costly (upwards of R50,000 for a market demand assessment and R100,000 for an economic feasibility study) and as such, start-ups often end up hitting a wall at this point. However, before spending a cent on such studies, you can do some basic research to first determine if you have an idea worth investing in by building a business case. 

How to develop a business case

So, what can you do to show that you have a business case? We are huge fans of the lean canvas model and the first thing we do when approached with an idea is put it to the lean canvas test. The approach is to unpack your idea into a one-page template by providing information on the problem, customers, value proposition, solution, channels to customers, revenues and costs, key metrics and the unfair advantage, in that order. The lean canvas will quickly show you if what you have is just an idea or a good idea that has the potential to succeed. Once completed, the outputs can easily be translated into concept/proposal documents and/or a simple pitch deck.

It’s just the start!

Unfortunately, most public sector development finance institutions such as NEF and SEFA will require more detailed market research, and a business case document most likely won’t suffice in leveraging funds. It can, however, be used to leverage initial interest and develop support in undertaking specialist studies. Essentially, it will generate some level of confidence and buy-in and funders might be more likely to recommend you to other small enterprise support agencies, such as SEDA, who will assist you to undertake market research. However, the business case could go a long way to securing private sector investors.

So in summary, if you have a new idea, we would suggest that you take some time to unpack and test your idea and prepare a solid business case before approaching potential partners, investors or funding agencies. This will save you time and money, allow you to stand out above other start-ups, and put you in a better position to leverage support for additional market research.


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January 10, 2020

As a startup, it is hard to know how to prioritise your limited time and funds. Furthermore, while you know your core business inside-out, you are often tripped up by all the other things that come along with business ownership. Lumec is coming up to 4 years in business so we did some reflecting, and came up with 4 things we wish we had known when we started. We thought we would share them here, so those taking the plunge into small business ownership can make good decisions from the start.

1. Take time to develop your brand

One of the first things every startup needs is a name, which is integral to your brand. We came up with a name after a few days of bouncing ideas around with friends – ‘Resource Research and Strategy Consultants’. It was a mouthful, no one could remember it, there was a competing business in our space that had almost the same name, and the ‘resource’ was confusing us with human resources and environmental resources businesses. Bad, bad, bad.

Our advice: if you don’t come from a marketing background (like us) we strongly recommend budgeting for a professional to assist with brand development. Take time when choosing a company name and ask everyone you see what they think of your potential name. You are going to be saying your company name A LOT – you need to feel confident and proud of it. But developing a brand is much more than just a name and a logo. Our brand consultants took us through the essentials of who we are as a business, what makes us different and what drives us. It was a highly beneficial process. If you want to read more about our brand and journey check out our about section on our website.

Don’t forget to check that your name has an available URL for your website and to reserve the name on the CIPC (Companies and Intellectual Property Commission) website/portal. 

2. Outsource support services

Similar to branding, we wish we had outsourced support services sooner, particularly, website development and accounting. We spent a lot of time learning WordPress and doing creative accounting and payroll in Excel in year one. This is a tricky one for a startup because whatever money is in the business is needed to keep the founders housed and fed for as long as possible while work becomes consistent. Furthermore, blindly handing over all bookkeeping in the beginning is not recommended – learning the basics is critical. 

However, website development can be outsourced fairly cheaply and even one accounting consult can get you up to speed quickly on what accounting programme is recommended and what the basic legislated requirements are for a registered business (hint: they are significant and can have hefty fines attached). It is also worth meeting with an accountant even before registering the startup to figure out what type of entity to register and what this may mean for taxes down the line. Several accounting and web development firms specialise in small businesses, are understanding and have good rates. SARS also have some good resources that are free. As you grow, you should meet more regularly with the accountant and hand over more responsibilities to avoid stress meltdowns (of which we had many). 

Note on points 1 and 2 above: Although registering your business is a hard-to-resist psychological step to small business ownership, it may be worth holding off until you actually have revenue. Part of us rushing the naming exercise was so that we could register the business and part of the accounting headache we experienced was because of registering the business too early. We see many startups falling into this trap. Registering a business does not mean you have a business, paying customers means you have a business. You can develop your brand and website, advertise yourself and get paying customers often all without being registered, especially as a consultant. As soon as you have income you can register and open a bank account within days. 

3. Set up sound internal processes from the start

Only 2.5 years into Lumec did we start to collect meaningful data on how we were spending our time. We now use this data, amongst other things, to see exactly: 

  • When we have exceeded our billable hours on a project and why, 
  • If we are working enough billable hours to cover our monthly expenses, 
  • If we are doing enough business development and staff development, and 
  • If we are spending too much time on admin. 

We use Clockify to measure our time, but there are other equally useful tools such as Toggl. There are several other monitoring tools that we have put in place from client queries to social media – the point is to determine your key metrics early and start tracking them from the start.

Another useful process was implementing Monday morning meetings where we discuss, divide and prioritise our tasks for the week, as well as provide feedback from the week before. Some businesses use Trello or Asana to manage tasks, but as a small business of just three, we find old fashioned to-do-lists work just fine for us. 

4. Be smart about your recruitment

In our first couple of years we required ad hoc work to be done. We reached out to our own networks and to the local university for recommendations and we temporarily employed several people but no one had the particular skills we were after. This cost us time and money. Based on this experience, when we decided to recruit a full time staff member, we knew we needed to conduct a rigorous recruitment process.

Our processes included a job advert on employment sites leading to a google form which was used to shortlist candidates. We then asked for CVs from the shortlist which were used to further refine the list. We did personality tests, interviews and writing tests for the top 10 candidates and our final choice we interviewed a second time. This process took at least 2 months but it is one of the best ways we have spent our time in our four years. We wish we had used a more rigorous process for hiring even temporary staff right from year 1.

This blog is the first of a series of posts we will be sharing to assist the startup business. Look out for future posts on funding, business planning and others here and follow us on Facebook and LinkedIn (@lumecsa) to get other related updates and information.